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发表时间:2018-08-01

 

Location

    Luanping County is located in the northeast of Hebei Province, southwest of Chengde City, in north latitude 40°39’21’’-41°12’53’’, longitude 116°40’15’’-117°46’03’’, at a place where Beijing and Chengde City meet, being 165 km from the second loop road of Beijing City, 120 km from the Capital International Airport, 65 km from Mountain Resort in Chengde, 275 km from Tianjin City, 465 km from Shijiazhuang, the capital city of Hebei Province.

Administrative Area

    Luanping County has a total area of 2,993 km², with the length of 95.7 km from east to west, the width of 67 km from north to south, is adjacent to Shuangluan District east, Chengde County southeast, Fengning County and Longhua County north and border Huairou County and Miyun County of Beijing on west and southwest, with a boundary of 113 km. As one of the 14 counties of the Green Economic Circle of the Capital, Luanping administrates 20 townships and 1 subdistrict office, which own 200 administrative villages and 9 neighborhood committees. And there are 6 administrative villages in 21 townships border Miyun County and Huairou County  of Beijing.  

Culture and History 

    Luanping was established as a county in 1778 (the forty-three years of Qianlong), history can be traced back to 6800 years ago, Shanrong nationality lived here for more than 700 years from Shang Dynasty and Zhou Dynasty to the Warring States Period, forming the distinctive ethnic characteristics of Shanrong culture. There are 5 imperial path site and 8 palace ruins of the Qing Dynasty, more than 360 sites, relics and ancient buildings of all types, and 10 important cultural relics protection units above the provincial level. The Kangxi, Qianlong, Jiaqing, and Xianfeng Emperor, walked by the ancient imperial path of Luanping for more than 230 times when they patrolled north for the Summer Resort to spend holidays and hunted in Mulan Paddock in autumns. Among them, the Kangxi and Qianlong emperor journeyed to and fro the most frequently, for more than 90 times respectively. What’s more, the Standard Mandarin pronunciation in Luanping is the Chinese pronunciation acquisition.

 

Intangible culture

    There are 13 civil carnivals, nearly 200 items, more than 20 temple fairs and other folk customs activities. Since 2007, 15 projects of 9 categories have been identified as the representative of the intangible cultural heritage after careful investigation. Among them, 8 projects were assessed as the city-level intangible cultural heritage,namely, The Fair for the God of Fire, The Ten Tones Ensemble from Zhangbaiwan, The Ghost of Cotton from Wudaoliangzi, The Erlongshan Mountain Temple Fair from Laowa, The Pennant Dance, The Two Dada Men Wrestling, and The Swing Dance with Flowers from Huodoushan, and The Fair for the Good Time in Peace from Changshanyu. What’s more, The Ghost of Cotton, The Ten Tones Ensemble and The Erlongshan Mountain Temple Fair are also identified the provincial intangible cultural heritage items. By the end of 2011, the county had declared 3 municipal intangible cultural heritage project, namely, the village folk Double Phonix Temple on the Shuiyunshan Hill from Laowa, the traditional opera Saw the Jar from Dengchang, and the traditional art Feather Painting from Mayingzi.

 

Shanrong culture

    Shanrong, the most powerful ancient minority in North China, originated in western Shanxi and Gansu Province, and migrated east in Shang and Zhou dynasties, mainly distributed in the hilly area of Jundushan mountain, Yanshan mountain and qilaotushan Mountain. They rose in the Western Zhou Dynasty, got the prosperity in the Spring and Autumn Period, contending with the countries of the Central Plains, declined after the Qihuan Duke’s northern expedition at the early Warring States Period, and gradually disappeared from the stage of history by the late Warring States Period. The Shanrong culture, which existed for two to three thousand years, is an important part of Chinese history and culture.

As a Shanrong habitation , Shanrong people lived here for about seven to eight hundred years from the Western Zhou Period to the early Warring States Period. Shanrong culture remains were found in nearly every township in Luanping, the Xingzhou Manzigou Shanrong graves, Hushenha PaoTaishan Shanrong graves, explored in the three consecutive years from 1976 to 1979, is the earliest discovery of Shanrong culture. And about more than 200 Shanrong tombs were explored and cleaned up from 1990 to 1993 in Hushenha Lishugoumen. The collection of Shanrong relics in the Luanping Museum are more than 2000 pieces of stone ware, bronze ware, and pottery. Luanping’s Shanrong culture is in the original with the rich characteristics of indigenous peoples.   

Nature and Ecology  

Land

    Luanping is located in the mountainous area, 80% of which is mountain, 10% river, and 10% arable land. The county land area is 4,490,000 mu, of which arable land 343,000 mu, and forest land 2,570,000 mu. The average altitude of the county is 400 meters with the highest peak: Head Mountain in Baicaowa, 1750.4 meters above the sea level, and the lowest point: Chaohe River bank outside the Great Wall of Bakeshenying, 210 meters above the sea level.

 

Climate

    The climate is semi-arid sub-humid continental monsoon climate of Yanshan Mountain with four distinctive seasons, as located between the temperate zone and the subtropics belt. In the spring, the temperatures rises quickly, and it seldom rains; the shot summer is a hot rainy season with much thunderstorms; the temperature drops rapidly in sunny autumn days, and the large temperature difference between day and night usually bring people comfort and cheer; and in the long cold winter, it seldom snows. The average annual temperature is 7.7, it’s coldest in January, with an average temperature of -10, and the extreme minimum temperature was -28.2 on January 5, 2010, while the hottest is in July with the average temperature of 23 , and the highest temperature was 38 on July 12, 2000. In 2011 the annual frost-free period was 143 days, the precipitation was 526.8 millimeters, and 70% -80% of the rainfall concentrated in June, July and August. The southwest wind blows with an average speed of 2.2 m / s all year long.

 

Hydrology

    There are four large rivers, namely, Luanhe River, Yixunhe River, Xingzhouhe River, and Chaohe river in the county, with the total drainage area of 3,010.42 km², the river network density of 0.137 km / km². The Luanhe River, Yixunhe River, and Xingzhouhe River belong to the Luanhe River system, which is the thirteenth longest river in China, the second longest in Hebei province, and the longest and largest in Luanping, has 1587 km²drainage area in the county. And the Chaohe River belongs to the Haihe River system, which is an important water resource for Beijing and Tianjin, within the territory has 1423 km²drainage area. The 4 rivers have 7 tributaries, which are larger than 100 km², 65 channels which are lareger than 10 km² and smaller than 100 km²,  and more than one thousand seasonal rivers.

  

Forestry

    The county is rich in natural vegetation species, pines, birches, poplars, oaks, maples, Vitex negundo, apricot five, and thorns are growing here, and in recent years, a large number of larches, Pinus tabulaeformis, Robinia pseudoacacias, chestnuts, pears are being planted. What’s more, wild medicinal plant resources are abundant here, the Juglans mandshurica, acanthopanax senticosus, wild soybean, Mongolian Astragalus membranaceus are protected by the state and 21 plants species, such as ephedra, rhodiola etc are of Provincial protection.

    Luanping is almost a home for wild animals and birds, there are migratory birds, like common crane, cuckoo, swallow, waxwing etc., residents birds, like chukar, mountain zebra, sparrows, Golden Eagle Owl chicken etc., and passing migrants like wild goose, whooper swans, gulls etc.. wild boar, red fox, roe deer, squirrels, rabbits and so on are common to be found, leopard, Golden Eagle, Buteo hemilasius are the first-degree national protection animals, and other 21 kinds are the second-degree national protected ones, 16 types are the provincial protection ones.

 

Mineral Resources

    Luanping County is rich in mineral resources with the proved reserves of 898,000,000 tons and the long-term reserves of about 3,000,000,000 tons. 34 useful minerals have been found, and the iron mineral can be roughly divided into five types, namely Anshan type magnetite, single type of vanadium-titanium magnetite, ultra poor magnetite, ultra poor magnetite, and hematite. There are 55 iron ore mining rights, and the ultra poor magnetite is the characteristic preponderant bulk mineral of our county.  

Tourism Recourses

    Luanping county is an important part of the tourism system in Chengde city.

    The Jinshanling Great Wall, known as “the most quintessential part of the Great Wall which stretches for over 10,000 li in length”, is located in Luanping, which is 133 km away from Beijing, and 90 km away from Chengde city. The Jinshanling section starts from Longyukou in the west and ends at the Wangjinglou Tower in the east and stretches about 10.5 kilometers, owning 5 passes, 67 guard towers and 3 beacon towers, and being unique for its block horse wall, barrier wall, brick wall with words, and the kylin screen wall. The Great Wall has been named one of The Most Beautiful 30 Scenes of Hebei Province by the Provincial Tourism Bureau in 2009, and named The Most Influential Ten Major Cultural Landscape of Hebei Province by the Provincial Cultural Relics Bureau in 2010. What’s more, there is an 8.4 km section of ancient Great Wall in good preservation in Laowa Town, at a place where Miyun County of Beijing Municipality and Luanping County meet, is 130 km away from Beijing, 85 km away from Chengde, and 26 km away from the Jinshanling Great Wall scenic area. And the Wudaoliangzi sections of the ancient Great Wall, which stretches for 1932 m owning 5 passes and 18 guard towers, are of development and utilization value and in good traffic condition. As early as the reign of the Shunzhi emperor to the Jiaqing emperor, the rulers of the Qing Dynasty walked by the ancient imperial path of Luanping for more than 230 times when they patrolled north for the Summer Resort to spend holidays and hunted in Mulan Paddock in autumns. Among them, the Kangxi and Qianlong emperor journeyed to and fro the most frequently, for more than 90 times respectively.

    The Baicaowa National Forest Park, as one of the best preservation of natural plant communities in North China, lies in the place where Beijing and Chengde meet, is 160 km away from Beijing City, 45 km away from Chengde City, 25 km away from the Jinshanling Great Wall. The 50-km² park is rich in land types and the plant resources, the 66,000 mu forest area, on which the coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest, bushes and pines, birches and poplars grow, takes nearly 80% area of the the park. There are 38 species of wild pteridophyte, 7 species of gymnosperms, 774 angiosperms, 207 species of terrestrial vertebrates, 4 type of amphibian animals, 15 species of reptiles, 154 kinds of birds and 34 kinds of mammals living and growing, among which more than 53 species are national or provincial protected plants and animals. A number of rare and endangered species, like Juglans mandshurica, acanthopanax senticosus, wild soybean, Phellodendron amurense, Mongolia Astragalus, Ulmus etc. also can be found in the Baicaowa National Forest Park.  

Industry Status

     The three industrial structure of Luanping county is 17.5:48.2:34.3.